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Chapter 4, Title 5 of the Ojai Municipal Code

Right to Bodily Liberty for Elephants

The first legislation in the US to recognize the legal right of a nonhuman animal

United States, California , Ojai

Introduced by Council Member Leslie Rule and developed with and supported by the Nonhuman Rights Project, the ordinance defines and protects elephants’ right to liberty. It expressly recognizes that elephants possess the right to liberty, prohibits any person from preventing elephants from exercising their right to liberty, and details how the law will be enforced and the penalty for violating it.

Ojai City Council and Courtney Fern of the NhRP

The ordinance passed with a 4-1 vote at a Ojai City Council meeting on September 26th, 2023. Read the full text of the ordinance here.

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